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安藤忠雄:建筑大师小传

ArMaster 2011-12-1 23:30 来自: 建筑中国俱乐部

简介 :“我绝不是个好学生。我总是喜欢在课堂外自学。在我大概18岁的时候,我开始拜访京都和奈良的庙宇,神龛和茶室,那里有很多伟大的传统建筑。当时我通过实地参观来和读书来学习建筑学。”

Tadao Ando was born in 1941 in Osaka, Japan. Growing up in that city as Japan recovered from the war, Tadao Ando spent the most of time out of doors, and was raised by his grandmother, whose name was "ando". From the age of 10 to 17 Tadao Ando worked at local carpenter, where Tadao Ando learned how to work with wood and built a number of models of airplanes and ships. His studying was very unusual. "I was never a good student. I always prefered learning things on my own outside of class. When I was about 18, I started to visit temples, shrines and tea houses in Kyoto and nara; There's a lot of great traditional architecture in the area. I was studying architecture by going to see actual building, and reading books about them." His first interest in architecture was nourished in tadao's 15 by buying a book of Le Corbusier sketches. "I traced the drawings of his early period so many times, that all pages turned black," says Tadao Ando: "in my mind I quite often wonder how Le Corbusier would have thought about this project or that."
 
 安藤忠雄于1941年出生于日本大阪。安藤成长在二战后的重建的日本,他由姓“安藤”的祖母抚养长大,并把大部分时间花在了户外。从10岁到17岁,安藤进入当地的木工作坊当学徒,在那里,他学会了怎样用制作木器并建造了很多飞机和轮船的模型。他的学习经历很不寻常。“我绝不是个好学生。我总是喜欢在课堂外自学。在我大概18岁的时候,我开始拜访京都和奈良的庙宇,神龛和茶室,那里有很多伟大的传统建筑。当时我通过实地参观来和读书来学习建筑学。”使他对建筑产生兴趣的是他15岁时买的一本勒·柯布西耶的速写集。“我描摹了很多遍他早期的手绘,以致所有的书页都变成黑色的了,”安藤说:“我经常在脑海里思考柯布西耶是怎样想到这样那样的方案的。”
 
Tadao Ando took a number of visits to the United States, Europe and Africa in the period between 1962 and 1969. It was certainly at that time that Tadao Ando began to form his own ideas about architectural design, before founding Tadao Ando Architectural & Associates in Osaka in 1969. Tadao Ando 's winner of many prestigious architectural awards, for example Carlsberg Prize (1992), Pritzker Prize (1995), Praemium Imperiale (1996), Gold Medal of Royal Institute of British Architects (1997) and now is one of the most highly respected architect in the world, influencing an entire generation of students.
 
在1962到1969年间,安藤忠雄开始形成自己的建筑设计理念,他于1969在大阪年建立了安藤忠雄建筑事务所。在那以后,安藤忠雄赢得了很多权威建筑大奖,例如嘉士伯奖(1992年),普利茨克奖(1995年),高松宫殿下纪念世界文化奖(1996年)和大英皇家建筑金奖(1997年)。如今,安藤忠雄已成为世界上最受尊敬的建筑大师之一,他影响了整整一代学生。
 
The first impression of his architecture is its materiality. His large and powerfull walls set a limit. A second impression of his work is the tactility. His hard walls seem soft to touch, admit light, wind and stillness. Third impression is the emptiness, because only light space surround the visitor in Tadao Ando 's building.
 
他的建筑让人印象最深的地方是他的建筑的实体。他那巨大而有力的墙给空间做出了限定。其次是他建筑给人的触觉感受。他那坚固的墙体看起来很柔软,能接纳风,光与静谧。再次是他的空间,因为只有光与空间包围着安藤建筑的访客。
 
Other things that had influenced his work and vocabulary of architecture is the pantheon in Rome and "enso", which is mysterious circle drawn by zen-budhists and symbolizing emptiness, loneliness, oneness and the moment of englightment. The circle and other rigorous geometrical forms are the basic forms of Tadao Ando 's art presentation.
 
 其他影响他的作品和建筑语汇的是罗马万神庙和“禅圆”,所谓“禅圆”就是禅宗学者画的一种神秘象征着空虚,寂寞,统一与愉悦瞬间的圆。“禅圆”和其他严密的几何形式构成了安藤忠雄艺术表现的基本形式。
 
First Tadao Ando 's realisation was Row House in Sumiyoshi, Osaka in 1975. This mentioned building was a simple block building, inserted into a narrow street of row houses. This residence is immediately noticeable because of its blank concrete fasade punctuated only by doorway. The whole object space is divided into a three equal rectangular spaces, while the central part is atrium. The space nearest the doorway contains the living room at ground level, and the bedroom above. The last final space contains the kitchen and bathtroom below, and the master bedroom above. Build in the wooden residential area above the port city of Kobe.
 
安藤忠雄的第一座建成建筑是1975年位于大阪的住吉的长屋。这是一座插入一排狭窄街区平房的简单的块体建筑。这座建筑被门口强调的清水混凝土正立面使得它很快地受人关注。建筑的主体被分隔为三个等大的矩形空间,中心部分为庭院。距离门最近的空间的一层是起居室,其上是卧室。另外的一部分空间的一层是厨房和卫生间,其上是主卧室。住吉的长屋坐落在港口城市神户以北的木结构居民住宅区。
 
The Koshino House, second realisation of Tadao Ando, was completed in two phrases (1980-81 and 1983-84). This house is a masterpiece, and collects all fragments of Tadao Ando 's architectonical vocabulary, mainly the light. "Such things as light and wind only have meaning when they are introduced inside a house in a form cut off from the outside world. The forms I have created have altered and acquiered meaning through elementary nature (light and air) that give indications of the passage of time and changing of the seasons."
 
增野住宅——安藤忠雄的第二座建成住宅——被建于两个阶段(1980——1981年与1980-1984年)。这所住宅是件杰作,它汇聚了以光为核心的安藤忠雄所有建筑语汇的片段。“类似光与风的东西只有在被以一种与外部世界隔绝的形式引入一座房子后才变得有意义。我创造出的形式被能够暗示时间段和季节变换的自然界的基本元素(风与空气)改变而获得了意义。”
 
All Tadao Ando 's work is characteristically simple, and we can find similar forms in the first half of 20th century: "I am interested in a dialogue with the architecture of the past", Tadao Ando says, "but it must be filtered through my own vision and my own experience. I am indebted to Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, but the same way, I take what they did and interpret it in my own fashion."
 
所有安藤忠雄的作品都是典型的简单,我们可以在20世纪上半叶找到相似的形式:“我对与过去建筑的对话很感兴趣,”安藤说,“但是这必须经过我个人的眼光与经验的过滤。我是从勒·柯布西耶和路德维希·密斯·凡·德·罗,但与此同时,我把他们的做法拿来并翻译成我自己的风格。”
 
One of the first projects to bring international attention to Tadao Ando was his Rokko Housing I. (Kobe, Hyogo, 1981-83), which is situated much further down the slope of the Rokko Moutains than the Koshino house, this complex is wedged into a restricted site on a south-facing 60 degrees slope. Each of the 20 units is 5,4 x 4,8 m in size, and each has a terrace looking out towards the bush harbour of Kobe. Why was this monumental resident building so successful ? " I think architecture becomes interesting when it has a double character, that is, when it is as simple as possible but, at the same time as complex as possible."
 
使安藤忠雄最初获得国际关注的的方案之一是他坐落在六甲山麓脚下的六甲公寓1号(神户市,兵库县,1981-1983年),这座复合体被嵌入一块向南60度倾斜的受限用地。公寓20个单元的每一单元占地5.4x4.8米,每一单元有一个可眺望灌木丛生的神户港的平台。这座大型居住建筑为何如此成功呢?“我认为当一座建筑具有双重性格的时候,它就变得有趣了,我是说,它极其简单同时极其复杂。”安藤说。
 
Some years later, Tadao Ando build a second housing complex, adjacent to Rokko Housing I. (Rokko Housing II.). Four times larger than the original building, this structure includes 50 dwellings, designed on a 5,2m square grid. A third and even larger structure is now under way above Rokko Housing II. (Rokko Housing III.), under construction.
 
若干年以后,安藤忠雄建造了第二座住宅联合体,毗邻六甲公寓1号(六甲公寓2号)。这座比原始建筑大四倍的建筑物,拥有50个住宅单元,每个单元被设计在5.2平方米的网格中。第三个在六甲公寓2号上方的更大的建筑(六甲公寓3号)正在建设之中。
 
Tadao Ando 's most remarkable works are certainly the religious buildings. "I feel that the goal of most religious is similar, to make men happier and more at ease with themselves. I see no contradiction in my designing christian churches. " Tadao Ando has build a number of christian chapels and other places of religion and contemplation. One of the most amazing church is also one of his simplest. The church of the light (Baraki, Osaka, 1988-89) is located in a residential suburb 40 km to the north-east of the center of Osaka. It consists from a rectangular concrete box crossed at 15 degrees angle by freestanding wall. The bisecting wall obliges the visitor to turn to enter the chapel. As ever with Tadao Ando, entering a building requires an act of will and an awareness of the architecture. In an unusual configuration, the floor descends in stages toward the altar, which is next to the rear wall, whose horizontal and vertical openings form a cross, flooding the space with light.
安藤最 引人注目的作品无疑是他的宗教建筑。“我感觉所有宗教的目标都很相似,那就是使人们自己更加幸福,更加安适。这与我设计的基督教堂相一致。”安藤建造了许多小基督教堂以及其他宗教与冥想的场所。其中最令人惊叹的作品也是他最简单的作品。光之教堂(茨木市,大阪府,1988-1989年)坐落在距离大阪市中心东北方向40公里的一处郊区的居民区。它由一个矩形混凝土箱体结构与以15°角穿插其中的独立式墙体组合而成。这道一分为二的墙体将参观者引入整个教堂。正如安藤一贯的理念,进入一座建筑需要一种动机与对建筑的感知。在这个不同寻常的结构内,教徒的座位高于牧师的神坛,神坛背面的墙上有道水平与垂直的开口,从而形成了使光线涌入的十字架。
 
Awaji is the largest island of the inland sea, set 600km to the south-west of Tokyo opposite Kobe in the bay of Osaka. Here, on hill above a small port, Tadao Ando build his Water Temple. Following a small footpath, the visitor first sees a long concrete wall, 3m high, with a single opening. Through this door one does not find an entrance, but rather another wall, blank, but carved this time, bordered by a white gravel path. Having walked past this new screen of concrete, the visitor discovers an oval lotus pond, 40m long and 30m wide. In the centre of the pond, a stair way descends to the real entrance of the temple. Below the Lotus Fond, within a circle 18M in diameter, the architect has inscribed a 17.4 m square. Here, within a grid of red wood, a statue of buddha turns its back to the west, where the only openings admits the glow of the setting sun. In this place at sunset the words of Tadao Ando can be more clearly understood: "architecture," Tadao Ando says, "has forgotten that space can be a source of inspiration." The other religious buildings are: Water Temple in Hyiogo, Meditation space UNESCO in Paris, etc.
 
淡路岛是日本内海最大的岛屿,位于东京西南方600公里,与大阪府的神户湾相对。在此处一座小港口附近的山丘上,安藤建造了水之神庙。通过一条小人行道,参观者可以看到一道长长的三米高混凝土墙,墙上只有一道开口。通过这道墙人们并不能找到入口,而是另一堵墙空白但被雕刻的墙体,一条砾石小径将人们引导而入。走过这处新的混凝土遮掩物,参观者可以发现一个长40米宽30米的椭圆形莲花池,在莲花池中央,一道楼梯向下通往神庙的真正入口。在莲花池底下,在一个直径18米的圆内,建筑师设计了一个长17.4米的方形广场,在这里的红木格子之内,一尊佛像背对着唯一能观赏到落日的西方。只有在日落时分的此处,安藤忠雄的语言才能被更清楚地理解:“建筑,”他说,“已经忘记了空间可以成为灵感的源泉”安藤其他的宗教建筑有兵库县的水之神庙和巴黎联合国教科文组织的冥想空间等等。
 
The Children's museum (1988-1989) is located on a large wooded hillside site overlooking a lake near the city of Himeji. In this mature work of Tadao Ando, the visitor is invited to discover the architecture in relation to its natural setting. The main unit of the museum contains a library, indoor and outdoor theatres, an exhibition gallery, a multipurpose hall and a restaurant. The outdoor theater is located on the rooftop, with a spectacular view of the lake. A stepped waterfall and pool near the building also serve to make a connection between the museum and the scenery of the lake. A path, marked by a long concrete wall leads the visitor away from the main structure toward a workshop complex consisting of a two-story square building.
 
儿童博物馆(1988-1989年)坐落在姬路市附近一处可以眺望湖水的森林山地上。在这座安藤忠雄的成熟作品里,参观者可以体会到建筑与自然环境之间的关系。博物馆主要的单元包括一座图书馆,室内剧场与室外剧场,一座陈列厅,一座多功能厅和一家餐厅。室外剧场位于屋顶,能极好的眺望湖水。一道阶梯式的瀑布和一座邻近建筑的水池同样将博物馆与湖光山色联系起来。一条靠近长长的混凝土墙体的小径将参观者带离主体建筑,通向一座两层的工厂建筑。
 
Along this path Tadao Ando has placed a surprising group of 16 concrete columns in a square grid. In their wooded setting, these 9m high pillars recall that the first columns in architectural history were inspired by trees. Just down the road from the children's museum Tadao Ando designed the Children's Seminar House (1991-92). A residence for schoolchildren on vacation, which is capped by a small observatory. The other museums are: The Museum of Literature, Naoshima Contemporary Art museum, Chikatsu-Asuka Historical museum, etc.
 
沿着这条小径,安藤在一个方形网格里放置了16尊令人惊奇的一组混凝土柱。在这片林木繁茂的场地,这些9米高的柱子使人们重新意识到建筑史上最初的柱子就是受树木的启发而建成的。从儿童博物馆沿着这条路通向安藤设计的儿童研究之家(1991-1992年)。这是一座用于儿童们度假的别墅,一座小型天文台位于屋顶。安藤其他的博物馆建筑有:文学博物馆,直岛当代美术馆和大阪府立飞鸟历史博物馆等等。
 
There are many islands in the many islands in the inland sea of japan that are architectonicaly designed into a small cities. There are projects like naoshima museum and hotel (1990 - 92 and 1994 - 95), located at the southern end of island naoshima, and the great project for Awaji island, Hyogo. It was designed in 1992 and from year 1997 is under construction. This north - eastern shore of Awajishima. Tadao Ando describes it: "The program is for multi-use facility including a botanic garden, a place for the study of horticulture, an open-air theater, a convention hall, a hotel and a guest house. Our first idea was to restore the greenery, more specifically to hold a flower exposition there and to develop the idea into a permanent garden. We called this the millenium garden, and the project was developed on the basis of that concept. It was decided that the facilities would be linked by living things, that is, plants such as trees and flowers, and the flow of water and people. The alhambra in granada provides a historical model.
 
日本内海有许多岛屿被设计成建筑学上的小城。像坐落在直岛最南端的直岛博物馆与直岛饭店(1990-1992年和1994-1995年),还有伟大的兵库县的淡路岛都是这样的计划。淡路岛于1992年被设计出来,于1997年动工。安藤是这样描述淡路岛的西北岸的:“设计方案具备多功能设施,包括一座植物园,一个园艺研究处,一座户外剧场,一个会议室,一家饭店与一间客房。我们最初的构想是恢复绿色,具体地说是在那要办一个花卉博览会,设计方案就是按照这样的基本理念发展的。我们想让基础设施被生物有机地联系起来,即树木、花卉、流水和人。西班牙格拉纳达的阿尔罕布拉宫就为我们提供了一个历史模型。”
 
Tadao Ando is the world 's greatest living architect. If Tadao Ando has one weakness it may by a difficulty in translating the grandeur of his smaller buildings to a larger scale.
 
安藤忠雄也是世界上最伟大的在世的建筑大师。如果安藤忠雄有个弱点的话,那就是他很难将他小型建筑里的壮丽转变到更大的范围中。
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